The second entry to the Turkish World Heritage Sites made in 2023, after the ancient site of Gordion, are the wooden mosques of medieval Anatolia. The property consists of five mosques built in Anatolia between the late 13th and mid-14th centuries. They are located in five different provinces of present-day Turkey. These mosques have an exterior built of masonry and multiple rows of wooden interior columns that support a flat wooden ceiling and roof. The masterful woodcarving and handiwork used in these mosques' architectural fittings and furnishings are also noteworthy. These buildings are:
- Grand Mosque in Afyonkarahisar
- Aslanhane (Ahi Şerefeddin) Mosque in Ankara
- Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir
- Grand Mosque in Sivrihisar
- Mahmut Bey Mosque in Kasaba
The Grand Mosque in Afyonkarahisar was built in 1272 on the orders of Hasan Nusretüddin while its architect was Emir Hac Bey. It is an example of the Anatolian wooden mosque architecture from the Seljuk period, where a wooden beam roof covers nine naves and is supported by 40 wooden columns with intricate capitals in stalactite decoration. The building was preserved in its original shape with a flat roof; however, another roof was added during a more recent restoration. The minaret is made of brick with lozenge-glazed shapes for decoration. This is a rare find from Seljuk times.
The Aslanhane Mosque is located in the old quarter of Ankara, next to the castle. The 1290 construction of the mosque, which dates back to Mesud II of the Anatolian Seljuks, makes it one of the oldest mosques in Turkey still standing. It was commissioned by two Ahi leaders named Hüsamettin and Hasaneddin while its architect was Ebubekir Mehmet. The square-plan building with 400 square metres area has one minaret. Its wooden roof is supported by 24 large wood columns. It has 3 gates and 12 windows. The mihrab is decorated with Seljuk tiles.
Eşrefoğlu Mosque is a 13th-century mosque in Beyşehir in Konya Province. It is situated just 100 metres north of the Beyşehir Lake. In 1296, Süleyman Bey, the second bey of Eshrefids (a small beylik in central - west Anatolia) commissioned its construction and the result was one of the greatest mosques erected during the Anatolian beylik period. The plan of the mosque is rectangular, but the corner on the north-east side is enlarged to make room for the main portal. The roof is supported by 42 wooden columns, each 7.5 metres high. The wooden columns were made of cedar and, according to a local tradition, they were soaked in the Beyşehir lLake for six months before being used in the building. After seven centuries, unlike most of the other Seljuk wooden buildings, this mosque survives and is used for regular services.
Sivrihisar Grand Mosque was built by Leşker Emir Celaleddin Ali in 1231–1232 during the reign of Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad I. The mosque has a rectangular plan. The outer walls are of ashlar and the roof is carried by 67 wooden columns. The upper parts of these columns are painted mostly in green, red and black colours. The mosque's minbar, i.e. the pulpit, is a masterwork made by Horasanlı İbni Mehmet in 1245, and is renowned for its ornaments in geometrical and floral design engraved in walnut wood.
Mahmutbey Mosque is a historical mosque in Kasaba village in Kastamonu Province, commissioned by Mahmut Bey, a member of Candarid house (an Oghuz Turkic princely Anatolian dynasty) in 1366. The mosque is unique in its building technique, as no cement is used in the construction, except for the mihrab. The roof was also constructed without any metal elements. Therefore, the building is also known as Çivisiz Camii (mosque without nails).